One outcome of the Ginosar conference was thus to generate, on the basis of the experience of others, some useful general insights into arms control processes. This first Ginosar conference took place when arms control in the Middle East was about to shift from a somewhat sterile academic exercise into a real political process. The historical residue, reinforced by profound ignorance about arms control matters, combined to produce a massive dose of skepticism regarding arms control arrangements and their applicability to the Middle East. Interestingly enough, presentations at Ginosar suggested that extra-regional players might also affect the way Middle East arms control and regional security negotiations are undertaken. Each of the regional parties will have to learn to understand how it operates, what its advantages and risks are, and how it could be made to serve the cause of regional stability without undermining its national security requirements.