This chapter focuses on the regional circle, the perceived threats created by local states. Most of the Arab states perceive a relatively high level of threat, or set of threats, directed against them. This high level of perceived threat stems from several main sources: Old historical disputes-like the one between Iraq and Iran. By and large, the threats perceived by the Arab states evolve in three circles: inner, regional and superpower. By contrast, the American threat has been perceived by the Arab radical states as a more acute and directs one; most of these states are, or were, concerned about the real possibility of American military intervention against their territory or regime. In the Arab view, Israel's nuclear capability comprises a central component of its military-technological advantage. Thus far the Arab threat perception has been dealt with in general terms. There are, however, important differences among the specific views of the various Arab states, primarily Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt.