Individual non-European or semi-European units may have shared in one or another of European experiences. Thus while China underwent an entirely different historical experience from Europe, the Chinese political tradition did include a certain concept of political reciprocity and a limited acceptance of the market. Japan developed institutions with some resemblance to European feudalism. The concept of “Europe” has been regularly adopted and appropriated by a variety of political, social, cultural or economic groups and movements, with the result that the meaning of the concept has become decidedly vague. The separateness and specificity of the European tradition is most evident in the political realm. One of the crucial shared experiences of Europe, although it has seldom been perceived in the way, has been socialism. Europe’s relations with the superpowers have been complex and varied. The weakening of Europe after 1945 only intensified the fear of the superpower in the East.