Islam and Arabian democracy have molded the character of the monarchy in Saudi Arabia. The Monarchy was formally established in what is Saudi Arabia more than half a century ago, in January 1926. Its origins, however, go back to the first century of Islam, or the seventh Christian century, when the Prophet Muhammad presided in Medina over the original Islamic state. With the introduction of a reform program, King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz's established authority fostered attempts by Ibn Saud to re-assert his threatened power. The crisis was finally resolved by the deposition of Abdulaziz ibn Saud and the accession of Faisal as King on 2 November 1964. Saud's ill-starred reign exemplified the Saudi monarchy's ability to overcome extreme difficulties both at home and abroad and to emerge from such trials with new strength. Instructions went out throughout the realm for the traditional Islamic baiah or pledge of allegiance to be sworn to Saud.