This chapter attempts to examine the rationale behind Saudi Arabia's first Five Year Development Plan under the leadership of King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz. The first unquestionable generalisation that can be made about the decision to 'modernise' is that King Faisal was fully aware of the gravity and impact of the decision. King Faisal, himself was a product of this traditional development process and knew of its many rewards. This was a simple, clearly articulated economy with people 'dependent on a production system, the economy of which was in keeping with natural cycles'. The link between culture and development came directly from the realisation of power over the constraints of the environment as the people confronted them day-by-day. King Faisal knew that the very fiber of the Saudi Arabian cultural perspective and spirit lay in these acts of confrontation with the Arabian ecology.