This paper describes a small-scale study conducted in England with a group of adult migrant and refugee ESOL learners. The study explores how participants conceptualised integration, and their perceptions of the relationship between learning English and integration. The findings highlight that the extent to which a person feels integrated, for example, by feeling accepted in society and in specific contexts, affects their opportunities for social interaction and improving their English language skills. Recommendations include increasing ESOL funding and provision, and measures to increase learners’ self-confidence by supporting more positive identity positions for migrant and refugee learners of English both inside and outside the classroom.