This chapter looks at the reception of feminist work by the traditional international relations (IR) community and at the conflict between feminist work and the concerns of other postpositivists. It explores ways of avoiding the dangers inherent in incorporating a feminist project within a wider focus on identity. The chapter describes two main instances of masculinity in international relations, the reaction to feminist work in IR and the kinds of men and masculinities produced within the practice and discipline of IR. Many feminist writings in IR have shared a common fate with a host of radical perspectives determined to challenge the dominance of realism. Of course, gender issues were originally introduced into IR through the areas of development studies and peace research. The most productive focus is on gender, not women or feminism, because only this focus allows the examination of precisely the construction of identities in IR that shape what happens to actual women and men in IR.