This chapter focuses on what teacher education means within the paradigm of questioning the world. It presents a proposal of “study and research paths for teacher education” (SRPs-TE), a teacher education format elaborated within the anthropological theory of the didactic based on the collective study of a professional teaching question carried out by teacher-students under the guidance of educators. After describing the structure of SRPs-TE in several modules, the chapter also presents three case studies implemented with pre- and in-service teacher-students of different school levels: primary, secondary and university. The ATD proposal for teacher education faces two main challenges: first, enabling teachers to deal with questions-led study processes and, second, empowering them to question the knowledge to be taught. Research within the ATD has already shown that, in the case of pre-service teachers, their spontaneous questioning was mainly related to the pedagogical knowledge, while pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge remained unquestioned.