This chapter presents the typology of the theft of relics in the Middle Ages. Quarrels over the right to possess saints’ bodies arose from Late Antiquity. Rivalries between religious establishments continued throughout the Middle Ages. Accounts of theft become a literary genre, with topoi that included the secret or the ruse. The hagiographers invoke several arguments to justify the thefts: Most frequently, neglect of worship of the relics. Apart from actual thefts, there were other similar phenomena: Removal of relics by force and unlawful retention during translations. In most cases, the stolen relics were used for new foundations of churches and monasteries and to enhance the prestige of already existing establishments.