The phenomenon of furta sacra in the medieval centuries has been well investigated by historiography, which has highlighted its multiplicity of meanings, devotional, political, and economic. This chapter examines the phenomenon from its origins, highlighting how it was an expression of a theological reflection and a mindset that evolved from the early Christian centuries. In particular, the chapter focuses on some examples of furta sacra relating especially to Southern Italy between the eighth and the 13th centuries, in the areas of Puglia and Campania. It highlights the contexts and purposes of the actions analyzed and proposes a reading that reveals their underlying political significance and power dynamics. The cases of Benevento, Bari, and Amalfi, which are the objects of specific attention here, show that the promoters of thefts of relics were well aware of the meaning and importance of these operations, especially when they served to reflect the respective power of the cities involved or that of the social groups which were the protagonists of the possible conflicts related to these issues.