This chapter begins by defining ‘athlete welfare’ and how this was conceptualised for this edited collection. It goes on to provide an overview of the sociocultural context of sport to explore why athletes are at particular risk of a range of issues that can compromise their welfare physically, emotionally, psychologically, sexually, intellectually, socially, behaviourally, and spiritually. The chapter also provides an overview of each of the 34 newly commissioned chapters in the Handbook.