This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book highlights the importance of rooting psychological science in an evolutionary function analytic approach. It focuses on motivational systems underpinning social competition that give rise to issues and concerns social position, social comparison, sense of inferiority, shame and vulnerability to depression. The book then outlines the authors' own research program and how that has contributed to the attachment research history and insight into mental health problems. It also considers some of the problems that can arise from difficult early childhoods and explores core issues on shame, in particular how shame memories are like trauma memories. The book addresses themes of recent innovations in psychotherapy. It then focuses on a very important concept of flourishing. The book also explores the authors' research into mindfulness and how it contributes to the wider research agenda on mindfulness and can be used therapeutically.