Turkey, once the pioneer of secular and democratic modernization in a Muslim society, finds itself regressing toward re-Islamization and increasingly authoritarian rule. People from countries all over the globe once greeted modernity—together with the culture of cosmopolitanism with which it is associated—as a great hope for permanent progress and peace. The discussion surrounding multiple modernities suffers from a lack of clarity concerning the basic cultural units of reference. The most basic alternative ways of understanding and practicing a given cultural heritage within the broad frame of each given culture are traditionalism, modernism, and fundamentalism. The confluence of competing styles of civilization, the logic of cultural modernization, and the diverse interests of differing social groupings gives rise to a wide array of internal differences in value orientations within contemporary societies. Anti-modernization issues ever-more-urgent calls for a rethinking of modernization and globalization. The dialectic of modernity has gone global with all its ambiguities and self-destructive risks.