ABSTRACT

Modernization and modernity have different meanings in Chinese. Modernization mainly refers to economic development and industrialization, while modernity is a broader concept that also includes certain social, political and ideological perspectives. In their quest for modernization and modernity, the Chinese learned first from Europe and the United States and later from the Soviet Union, but all such Western-derived models failed until 1978, when the country launched the reforms that opened up its economy. The most influential theoretical justification of Chinese constitutionalism came from Sun Yat-sen’s theory of five-power constitutionalism, as outlined in various speeches and essays written from the 1910s through the mid-1920s. The Chinese Communist Party had talked about anti-corruption campaigns for many years, yet many Chinese had believed that without strong leadership a real anti-corruption campaign would be impossible. Xi Jinping’s comprehensive deepening reform is more focused on ensuring better lives for the Chinese people, coupled with better performance by the Party.