South Africa’s reformed school science curriculum places a strong emphasis on the goal of inquiry-based science education. The previous curriculum had a narrow conception of scientific literacy, with a focus on the transmission of scientific knowledge. A reformed curriculum heralded a reconceptualization of the role and enactment of practical work, with a directive for an inquiry-based approach. This chapter is a synthesis of research conducted in South Africa on the implementation of inquiry-based learning, a learning progression for inquiry infusion, assessment of inquiry, and teacher professional development in inquiry-based teaching. The chapter concludes with a discussion of these findings, and implications thereof. Recommendations are made on mapping the way forward for inquiry in South Africa.