In addressing the relevancy of education for the 21st-century context, Zimbabwe had to establish a curriculum where learners develop an understanding of a new set of competences which goes beyond basic knowledge and skills. Today’s citizens require a new set of competences and conceptual understanding of complex concepts, need to develop communication skills and collaborate creatively to produce new ideas, new products and new knowledge, while developing a critical mind in order to face the challenging world. Inquiry-based science education becomes the basis for incorporation of this new set of competencies in Zimbabwean schools. The Zimbabwe science curriculum stipulates that inquiry skills are learned through practical work where learners apply and hence understand scientific concepts. As such, learners should employ scientific skills in solving real-life problems. This chapter aims to determine the nature and level of inquiry-based science education in Zimbabwean schools. The chapter describes inquiry-based practices that are encapsulated in the Zimbabwean science curriculum; analyses the relationship between the prescribed curriculum inquiry-based practices and the examination frameworks; evaluates the extent of learner preparation and performance in practical assessments; discusses teacher professional development for implementing inquiry-based science teaching; explores the use of technology in the teaching of practical work; and identifies challenges and problems in the implementation of inquiry-based practices.

Finally, implications and recommendations are made for teacher professional development in scientific inquiry-based teaching.