The notion that practical work is essential for effective science teaching and learning is arguably tenable because it is considered to enhance students’ understanding of scientific processes and concepts. The investigative nature of science uses practical work as a tool to probe into the physical and natural world. Within the science education community, a variety of terms, such as experimental work, practical and investigative activities, and practical and enquiry skills are used interchangeably to describe practical work. In principle, practical work continues to be a standing item in all science curricula reform initiatives in science education within Nigeria for many reasons. This is in recognition of the significant role practical work can play in supporting teachers to engage students in the learning of scientific phenomena. This chapter opens with a conversation to advance an argument on the different roles of practical work in science and science learning. The chapter examines the emergence of science and practical work in the school curriculum in Nigeria. In addition, literature is reviewed for evidence of students’ learning gains from practical work and how it is assessed within Nigerian school science. The chapter further explores the role of practical work as an essential component of the school science curriculum. While the current practice of practical work embraces a cookbook or recipe task approach, practical work remains plagued with a myriad of challenges. The chapter maintains that practical work that merely requires students to follow instructions without thinking about what they are doing may not lead to meaningful learning.