This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book weaves the various issues that arise in environmental law and governance in the Pacific Islands region together through three themes: climate change, biodiversity and natural resource management, and communities. It traverses current and future environmental law of the Pacific by a focus on emerging challenges. The book aims: to accurately describe the current state of environmental law and governance aspects across the Pacific; and to provide a scholarly and policy-relevant evaluation of the challenges, deficiencies, and opportunities for improvement in the hope of triggering further publications, debate, and law reform. The devastation caused by climate change exacerbates the impacts of unsustainable resource use, resulting in rapid declines in biodiversity. These, in turn, have debilitating effects on Pacific Island people, their human rights, their ways of living, and their cultural heritage.