Many instructional design studies include elements of ethnography, and researchers are often interacting with their learning and research audience. Ethnography requires the researcher to immerse themselves in the environment and gather data through direct observations, interactions with participants, and recordings of everyday life. The purpose of this chapter is to provide instructional designers with an overview of the various types of ethnographic methodologies used in instructional design research and explain how ethnographic methodologies align with instructional design practices, particularly taking into account the influence that contextual factors may have on a design intervention or study.