DOI link for Political Leadership
Political Leadership book
This chapter examines the complex role of national leaders in the democratic transition process, with a particular emphasis on how and under what conditions ruling elites either promote or subvert citizen participation in political decision-making. The communal model describes political systems commonly found in Africa and in former communist countries. A civic realm is hard to develop and institutionalize when formal associational life is weak, and when governance crises emerge due to the incompatibility of unprocessed community demands and limited political resources. Political space was limited, with strict government controls over the mass media, non-governmental organizations and other forms of political and non-political organization. The Kenyan state, despite the 2002 elections, still exhibits strong statist characteristics, with a powerful executive branch that remains a predominant actor in the political realm. Regardless of the political direction taken by the state, the role of the ruling elites is unmistakable, particularly in shaping the nature of transition, and the emerging regime type.