This chapter describes non-governmental organizations that make social, cultural, religious, economic or political transactions independent of the state, including, but not limited to, clubs, societies, clans and ethnic associations. The concept of civil society in Africa is rooted in pre-colonial societies, gradually acquiring new dimensions as society became more complex in the colonial and independence periods. Many of the civil society organizations that existed in precolonial Africa served to counteract non-participatory leadership tendencies. During Kenyatta's rule, the Central Organization of Trade Unions was placed under government control together with other sectors of civil society, thus limiting the freedom and impact of associational life. The government attempted to control civil society through legislation and bureaucratic control. Civil society organizations were involved in initiating dialogue among the contending parties, denouncing violence, resolving conflicts, calling for the rehabilitation and settlement of victims of clashes, and encouraging participatory democracy.