In audio hacking, one can simply run any signal into an amplifier, pass the signal to a speaker, and hear the everything. In video hacking, one needs to conform to the curious electronic “grammar” of video signals. At first, like in computing, video systems were large and expensive. Although video was dreamt up as a democratic medium, it emerged as a broadcast technology. There’s a rich history of video artists who have developed their own systems and inspired many contemporary hackers. Video standards were created in the 1940s to display broadcast images on cathode- ray tubes, which are much more forgiving than many modern displays. The video standards created in the US were named after the National Television Standards (or System) Committee, a group of engineers and policy makers. When hacking a found video device, look for chips that can contain any of the “logic” of the device and try the wet fingers approach.