This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book includes the main conclusions reached by assessing the progress of temporary affirmative action measures in redressing structural inequalities in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, El Salvador, South Africa and the United Kingdom. The book is divided into three parts with 11 constituent chapters overall. The first part describes and classifies the emerging and/or consolidated typology of affirmative action measures. The second part aims at providing a coherent and systematic approach to the analysis of special temporary measures in the targeted countries. The final part of the book comprises two thematic case-studies seeking to provide insight into the outcomes derived from implementing affirmative actions in concrete areas. This part also has a chapter suggesting an alternative way towards greater equality which can be used to complement affirmative action measures.