India and China have a range of similarities in terms of their size and complexity, but very different human histories, especially over the last few centuries. This chapter seeks to highlight the extent to which politics, in the shape of populist government, has sought to extend its hegemony over the two States through undermining these affirmative action measures in both countries. First, it seeks to enunciate the origin and evolution of affirmative action measures in each of the countries, highlighting the historical necessity perceived for them. The chapter then examines the challenges that have arisen in both jurisdictions and how incumbent governments’ actions have shattered founding myths, in both cases offering an alternative founding myth that has gained significant popular support. It concludes by highlighting the threats that emanate from this shift, arguing that the measures heighten the likelihood of the spectre they are designed to combat.