Kennedy-Dubourdieu writes that the principle of equality of opportunity for all, underpins a stable and just society. Affirmative action measures to achieve equality in the United Kingdom (UK), the European Union (EU) and South Africa are the focus of this chapter. It begins with a short overview of the origins and evolution of affirmative action in the UK, the EU and South Africa as explored in a previous publication. The chapter builds on that research in which it was explained that affirmative action is, in the UK and the EU, generally referred to as positive action. The overview of the legislation is followed by an assessment of the implementation and efficacy of the affirmative action measures. Then, the obstacles to their implementation and their contestation are examined. The chapter also focuses on a specific form of affirmative action for disabled people: duties of reasonable accommodation.