This chapter explores the transition in the mountain tourism landscape of Japan through two instructive case studies from the North Japan Alps. Prior to Japan’s modernization, mountains were considered sacred places and, consequently, were out of bounds for commoners. During the early modernization period, however, mountains and their secluded valleys witnessed drastic changes as they became objects of conquest and, later, places for tourism development. The relative proximity of these mountains to urban centres and their modest elevation helped mass access to these landscapes. Tourism development thrust these landscapes into a dual trajectory: while visitor numbers increased and consequential development resulted in the depletion of natural ecosystems and a trivialization of place, early conservation efforts that later morphed into the national park movement were borne out of this situation. Today, these landscapes are under renewed threat from visitor pressure and global environmental change, but some indications of a heightened ecological consciousness and sense of place can be detected among local tourism stakeholders which can provide insight for more sustainability-oriented tourism development