Native American reservations are among the most conspicuous examples of the US settler colonial project. During the middle decades of the nineteenth century, federal officials developed reservations as proving grounds for assimilationist policies designed to eradicate Native lifeways. At the same time, from their inception reservations have also operated as sites of cultural contestation, community formation, and sovereignty building for hundreds of Tribal Nations. These entangled histories are central to what we call “reservation archaeology.” Drawing on our work with the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde in northwestern Oregon, we argue reservation archaeology stands to reveal new insights about the manifestations of settler colonialism and Indigenous survivance across time and space. Furthermore, when grounded in respect for the sovereignty of Tribal Nations and community-based participatory practice, reservation archaeology can begin to address the legacies of settler colonialism by reframing archaeological research in accordance with the cultural protocols, needs, and goals of Indigenous communities.