This chapter first explores in theoretical terms what is understood by aural skills and the various ways they may be exhibited, outwardly and inwardly, as a measure of that person’s musical ability. Reference is then made to their practice and place within general musicianship, including the significant roles played by memory and singing in their development. The chapter proceeds to explore the processes governing the assessment of aural skills within current training and then considers, in the final section, developments in which the assessment of aural skills is an integral part of musical development and an increasingly corporate feature of musical training.