This chapter surveys the nature and composition of aural-skills curricula across the English-speaking world and compares contemporary approaches to incorporating and integrating aural skills into music curricula at a variety of educational levels and types of higher education institutions. It asks whether these common curricular approaches teach the skills and competencies that aural-skills teachers say and think that they do, and provides a scientific and evidence-based means for answering the questions that arise. It looks at the state of aural-skills pedagogy from a holistic perspective, provides a reliable means for assessing its effectiveness, and provides an evidence-based description of what educators are doing at their institutions.