Sustainable development goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations in 2015 are gradually influencing the behavior of various players such as governments, industries and civil societies. In this chapter the issue of whether or not the trade-offs intrinsic to SDGs and our society are balanced in an appropriate manner between the environment, society and the economy is discussed. The discussion is based on the original interpretation of ecological modernization, which could help us to understand (interpret/explain) the behavior principles not only of both governments and industries in a realistic and comprehensive manner, but also civil society. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, which has been developed as one of the climate change mitigation technologies, has attracted attention both inside and outside Asia as a technology capable of being introduced on a large scale in a relatively short period of time. The various concerns about such things as the use of fossil fuels (coal in particular) and the risk of CO2 leakage from storage sites are also noted. Society’s attitude towards the CCS varies and thus it has proceeded along different paths, and the trade-offs between environment, society and economy are dealt with differently in different countries. This chapter describes the way in which the public and NGOs recognize (or frame) and respond to (or constrain) this technology, based on the cases in North America (USA, Canada), Norway, Germany, China and Japan This is followed by an analysis of the background to different societies’ response to (or constraints on) CCS technology. When facing the choice between the various trade-offs, the ultimate factor should be civil society (social consideration), if we are to make our society sustainable.