Puerto Rico is a Caribbean island with a long history of agricultural production, although its economy has shifted from agriculture toward an industrial paradigm since the 1950s. Food imports are now the norm, yet local farming has never ceased and the agroecology movement has rescued several Indigenous practices and crops in recent decades, viewed as a means of social and political resistance. In September 2017, Hurricanes Irma and María disrupted an already weakened food system. Environmental vulnerability is coupled with evidence of climate changes: higher temperatures; coastal and mountain soil erosion; and loss of biodiversity. In the aftermath of the disaster, the poor response on behalf of the government was counterbalanced by strong and already existing social networks, particularly among farmers participating in agroecological markets. This chapter discusses and critically analyzes the potential of agroecology to transform the food production system of Puerto Rico in light of its social and political context.