This chapter aims to provide a contribution to the development of contemporary knowledge on the work of chief executive officers (CEO). It reviews the classic academic contributions within this field and discusses work that aspires to shed light on the work of contemporary CEOs. The chapter analyses this work by presenting the results from a survey given to CEOs from firms operating in Latin America. It focuses on the aforementioned research on the work of 21st-century CEOs by outlining the findings and insights from research on the agendas of CEOs based in Latin America. The chapter also analyses the differences between the tasks that CEOs consider they focus on and those that they actually executed taking into account contingency factors related to the CEOs themselves or to the firms they lead. It provides the intensity of execution of the different tasks, assessing the significance of differences for diverse CEO profiles.