Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring is commonly regarded as a milestone in environmentalism since it openly challenged the consequences of industrialization and increased public concern and awareness on a subject that had until that time been of little interest. While some studies argue that the upsurge of interest on environmental matters is attributable to the role of values and moral motivations, most of the literature suggests that firms embrace sustainable practices mainly as a way to gain social legitimacy. Several factors lead to environmental sensibility, and the purpose is not to say that a greater or lower intensity of these factors is better or worse but to provide a factual checklist to determine what it is. The chapter provides a decidedly apolitical approach to the issue and focuses on the present state of play in the world of business and the strategic choices facing firms in the years ahead.