This chapter explores what an autonomy-centered theory of justice could look like. Assuming that the core ideal for a society is to protect and enhance each of its members’ capacity to lead an autonomous life, what should that society do? What are the duties of justice of the state if it is ‘autonomy-minded’? The chapter argues that the first step is to define a conception of autonomy, a set of conditions for autonomy, and thresholds for each of these. On this basis, four substantive duties of justice can be identified. The autonomy-minded state invests in members’ competences so they can reach the threshold level of autonomy, and it protects them from falling below the threshold due to private domination between citizens. It respects their autonomous choices once they are above the threshold, but it substitutes for those choices where they are (still) below the threshold. Finally, the autonomy-minded state carries out these substantive duties in a self-reflexive way. It exercises good practical judgment in distinguishing below- and above-threshold situations, and exercises its authority fairly by justifying its judgments to its citizens, and being open to challenges. In the end, such a society of individually autonomous citizens can only be realized through a collectively autonomous citizen-body.