This chapter discusses retrospective trends in music and audiovisual art, sometimes known as Hauntology. It discusses a renewed interest in analogue tools and techniques, but positions this as a reaction against digital technologies, and a successor to the Glitch movement of the 1990s. It examines hybrid analogue/digital approaches, particularly in the context of ‘maker culture’, and looks at the evolution of these approaches into modular systems for audio and video. It argues that a new kind of material of sound and light is emerging, a successor to the Structuralist film of the 1960s. It concludes that this can be seen as a creative approach to Media Archaeology and a collapsing of media history, linked to ethical and environmental concerns around technology, and part of a broader questioning of the idea of societal progress.

It discusses seminal works of 21st-century audiovisual art through an exposition of technical and aesthetic development, where possible focusing on communities and schools of thought/practice rather than individual artists.