This chapter examines evidence from the research on one-to-one learning and teaching contexts. We conceptualise one-to-one vocal and instrumental teaching as an informal professional discipline that may vary across contexts with regard to purpose, content and pedagogical values and approaches. We discuss the ways that learning is constructed within the one-to-one environment, using a framework that positions the emergent learning in relation to various alignments of learner, teacher and content. Using this framework, we consider one-to-one vocal and instrumental teaching within five age-related contexts, ranging from early years to later life, considering facets that may be either coherent or more flexible across contexts.