This chapter examines the nineteenth century emergence of the first national and international social movements in Europe, and in European colonies. While the increasing importance of parliaments, elections, and rights were tied to social movements, it shows that this relationship is complex. Parliamentarization also occurred in these cases, which gave more power to representative institutions. Additional liberties like the right to associate and freedom of speech contributed to organizations’ and coalitions’ capacities to assert their claims in more formal ways. Elections also affected social movements’ WUNC displays, campaigns, and performances. However, as this chapter shows, there is no clear association between democratization and the rise of social movements. Ruth Collier’s study in “Paths Toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America” is used to investigate why democratization and social movements are related in some cases, but not others. Switzerland and Argentina are also included to show the often inconsistent and complex nature of social movements’ relationship with democracy. The growing significance of international relations and their impact on regimes and social movements are also noted.