The philosophy of offender punishment for deterrence of wrongdoings is criticised as a result of the increasing crime rate. Philosophy of rehabilitation was introduced to become another criminological key philosophy for punishment. The treatment system for prisoners in Thailand can be divided into four stages: submission, treatment, pre-release and post-release. The rehabilitation programme can further be divided into two levels based on the offender classification— Basic rehabilitation programmes and Specific programmes. The rehabilitation programme during the probation stage in Thailand is based on a cognitive behavioural approach to change actions and behaviours. The idea of probation in Thailand started only in 1952 with juvenile supervision of juvenile detention centres. Thailand’s internal strength rests on the idea of social inclusion and justice. Similarly, rehabilitation programmes aimed at insurgents or terrorist rehabilitation will evolve and mature. The probation system has to identify social measures for non-compliance with rehabilitation rather than just relying on custodial punishment.