Though the liberation of Marawi has seemingly ended the terror that had gripped the region, the threat of violent extremism is far from over. The fighting attracted combatants from neighbouring countries and stirred up the possibility that fleeing fighters would seek refuge in nearby Indonesia and Malaysia. Ongoing delays in rebuilding war-ravaged Marawi City could also pave the way for the recruitment of more militants. Philippines countering violent extremism and preventing violent extremism (CVE/PVE) agenda has not been forthcoming as the practices are contingent upon political and security sectors circumstances. The use of brute military force and law enforcement measures, which have remained vital strategies in countering terrorism, are still insufficient on their own. A more inclusive and multi-level approach is required to address this transnational problem, necessitating the participation of civil society.

This chapter looks at the recent developments in counter-radicalisation and extremism initiatives adopted by ASEAN countries, particularly Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore, and how Philippines can draw lessons from these existing programmes to develop its own CVE roadmap. While it can be argued that the drivers of violent extremism differ across individuals and communities, there are parallels in the ideologies and narratives used by terrorist groups. CVE/PVE initiatives and counter-terror approaches adopted by these countries may prove useful for Philippines in its future planning and strategising of countering violent extremism in a post-Islamic State era.