The anatomical and physiological differences between men and women lead to different responses to exercise and different exercise performance. Studies in sport and exercise science are often limited to males or do not distinguish between male and female subjects. For many female athletes, including judoka, their time of active competition coincides with their reproductive years. Therefore, they are exposed to hormonal fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle or through oral contraceptive use. The hormones of oestrogen and progesterone affect many physiological functions including the reproductive system. Some researchers prefer to avoid these confounding factors associated with female hormone fluctuations. An overview of the hormonal factors associated with the natural menstrual cycle or oral contraceptive use that may affect performance will be provided. The chapter will identify emerging literature considering adaptations to chronic exercise in females and how synchronising training programmes to female hormone fluctuations may assist in training adaptations. Practical applications for the female judoka in both training and competition will be offered. The Female Athlete Triad, which refers to the relationship between energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and bone health, will also be covered, as well as its negative effects on both performance and health, with particular reference to the female judoka.