This chapter aims to challenges in sustainable innovation performance measurement at the firm level by focusing on the plantation agriculture industry. To address the multi-dimensionality of sustainable innovation performance, Rauter et al. have developed a new scale by defining five dimensions to consider in innovation performance measurement. Hence, due to the availability of multitudinous aspects to consider, the determination of the dimensions under which the sustainability performance is accrued is one of the fundamental challenges in the measurement of sustainable innovation performance. The chapter discusses the requirements of the sustainable innovation performance information users in seeking possible solutions to address the measurement challenges. Sustainable innovation performance is the extent to which the innovation output/results have improved the firm’s sustainability success. The achievement of sustainable development goals by 2030 requires urgent action on many fronts, including the promotion of innovations that address only economic development but also social equity and environmental conservation.