The magnitude of Operation Desert Shield, the United States (US) deployment to Saudi Arabia that was begun in August 1990, was such that it overshadowed Just Cause. The fact that so few Panamanians were killed–far that predicted by the planners and very low for the type and dimensions of the operation that occurred–reflects the discipline and professionalism of the soldiers in the field. Very little went wrong in Just Cause and, when one considers the complexity of the operation, the reason–good training–soon becomes evident. Just Cause stands as yet another incident in the US-Panamanian relationship in which the United States again intervened in Panamanian affairs. Negative US economic measures in 1987, 1988, and 1989 and the destruction that occurred during Just Cause certainly established partial US responsibility concerning Panamanian conditions. Just Cause was hallmarked by good leadership from the commanders at the top downward to the officers and non-commissioned officers in the field.