Panamanian nationalism, offended by United States (US) control of the Panama Canal and a sizeable US presence, erupted into anti-American riots in 1964. The US-Panamanian relationship became decidedly strained in the mid-sixties, improved in the late seventies, and then deteriorated in 1987. Under the treaties, control of the canal would be transferred gradually, leading to complete Panamanian sovereignty at the end of 1999. The non-military measures included imposing a total trade embargo, suspending US visas to all Panamanian citizens, requiring all US military and civilian employees to move onto US bases, fomenting a rebellion, and abducting Noriega. The Panamanian dictator had antagonized his own people and had outraged the United States. The lessons of indications and warning during the crisis between Panama and the United States demonstrate that indicators manifest themselves in a variety of forms, only one of which is military activity.