This chapter assesses the planning for and the organization and effectiveness of command, control and communications in Just Cause. It examines how the failed coup of October 3, 1989, the familiarity with the nation, and military rehearsals all helped United States (US) planning and preparation for the invasion. The chapter shows how the lessons learned from Grenada helped to avoid some of the same problems that plagued that operation. The area of operations for Just Cause was the entire isthmus of Panama, and Panamanian Defense Forces were based at several locations across this region. Urgent Fury was marred by many problems, including a complex, multi-layered command and control organization, and extremely poor communications between the forces of the various services. A Panamanian warrant for the arrest of General Thurman and General Mark Cisneros, Commanding General, US Army South, was issued.