This chapter discusses the use of artifact assemblage characteristics as a means of determining occupation duration. The particular suite of features and facilities constructed when a place is initially occupied as a habitation locus and the spatial arrangement of those features is best understood as a reflection of both anticipated activities and anticipated site occupation duration. Winter habitations are thought to have been occupied for longer periods than summer habitations and to have served as residences during planting, harvesting, and consumption of stores over the winter. The ratios of artifacts of different types show the patterns expected from the simulation. Simulation provides a way to examine how the processes affect the composition of artifact assemblages at early pithouse sites. Early pithouse sites contain a wide variety of artifacts, including ceramic cooking, storage, and serving vessels, flaked lithic tools, groundstone tools, bone tools, and basketry.