Civilian experts on security and military affairs at various research institutes were encouraged to play an active role in advancing debate on foreign policy, arms limitation, and military affairs. Debates between civilians and the military leadership, and debates within the Soviet military itself, increased sharply in 1990. Evidence can be found that the military leadership demonstrated its displeasure at these events by carrying out sanctions against reform-minded officers. The military leadership has been forced, due to public debate and the situation in the country, to move slowly ahead on some aspects of military reform. During 1989, civilian experts placed great faith in reforming the Armed Forces via the Soviet Parliament and the newly constituted Supreme Soviet Committee on Defense and State Security. The revolutions in Eastern Europe in late 1989 changed the world quickly and dramatically, especially for the Soviet Union.