The problem of Somali nationalism within the Ethiopian state appears to be intractable. This chapter examines the dynamics of multinational states to see what this means for changes within modern Ethiopia. It explores changes in the identities of the national groups living in Africa's Horn. The chapter provides a dialectical analysis of state coherence and national identity. It suggests a bargaining strategy must be attuned to the constantly changing environment created by the dialectic. To a considerable extent, the "problem" of the Ogaadeen was caused by diplomatic mismanagement. The national identity of the Oromo peoples who straddle the Ogaadeen desert is often seen as the key to the future of Africa's Horn. Within the Ethiopian state, it is reasonable to ask the political authorities to give greater protection to the Somalis and to redistribute some resources to the Ogaadeen, so the Somali population there can develop some hope for a better life.