Like many ethnic groups in northern Potosi, the land of the Jukumanis is spread out along different ecological tiers. To a casual observer, Jukumanis appear to be a traditional and isolated group: they are basically bilingual in Quechua and in Aymara—few speak Spanish; they practice subsistence agriculture. Just as the reproduction of low-paid seasonal labor is indispensable for the existence of the small-scale mining operations, during years of poor agricultural production and when the need arises to obtain a surplus for barter or to meet communal obligations, the resources available in the larger society become indispensable to Jukumanis. From 1960 until 1962, about 54 percent of the antimony produced and exported by small-scale miners in Bolivia was over 60 percent in metallic content. Small-scale mining operations might not have as high initial recovery ratios as large-scale, capitalized mining enterprises, but when redigging over time is taken into account, the recovery rates of modern and rustic mining operations may be similar.