This chapter examines coca production in Bolivia in an attempt to assess the possible impact of the anti-coca campaign upon the peasant growers of the two principal coca-producing regions: the Yungas of La Paz and the Chapare of Cochabamba. These two areas will be compared and contrasted as to scale of production methods, land tenure systems, labor patterns, marketing systems, and income level and standard of living of the growers. While there are some important differences between the regions, not the least of which is that the Yungas of La Paz has produced coca since pre-Hispanic times, while the Chapare is a relative newcomer to this ancient and, in Andean terms, lucrative business, there are also striking similarities that suggest considerable difficulty for any program aimed at coca eradication. Thus, once the characteristics of coca production in these regions have been established, the chapter turns to an analysis of governmental policies toward coca production and prospects for their successful implementation.