Sun Yat-sen first explicated the Principle of People's Welfare or min-shengchu-i on April 1, 1912, to members of the T'ung Meng Hui in Nanking. If people's welfare is not fulfilled then civilization does not develop, economic organizations are not improved, morality retrogresses, and all sorts of injustices arise: class warfare, workers' misery, and all kinds of oppression. If greater food consumption and availability were important components of social welfare, so was clothing: "Clothing is one of life's necessities." Heavy rains had produced soil erosion through water runoff that carried great amounts of precious topsoil into rivers and lakes. Without the proper care of China's environment, the welfare of its people could not be improved. Sun believed that China possessed great physical resources, which its people had not effectively utilized and managed. He recognized China's potential for producing more food if farmers adopted improved techniques.